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Η πιο παγωμένη πόλη του κόσμου: Τρεις μήνες άδεια, θερμοκρασίες που αγγίζουν τους -55 βαθμούς και κατάθλιψη.

Due to its location, Norilsk might appear even more isolated than other arctic cities, without ground connections with the rest of the world. The air is the only way to reach it, together with seaway and river boats when the navigation is possible

The living conditions are extreme in Norilsk, with intense cold, negative average annual temperature, strong winds and grey skies throughout the year. Locals (pictured) enjoy a rare day of sunshine but have few beauty spots to sunbathe in 

The cold period in the city extends for about 280 days per year, with more than 130 days with snowstorms and the average annual temperature is -10C, reaching lows of -55C in winter. 

For two months of the year, the city is plunged into polar night, where 24 hours a day are in darkness and in the summer they have 24 hours of light

The polar days and nights cycle has a strong influence on the physical and psychological conditions of the human body 

The Norilsk’s citizens suffer ‘the polar night syndrome’, resulting in anxiety, nervousness, drowsiness or insomnia, depending of the seasons, while the psychological discomfort and poor emotional stimuli also generate many cases of depression. Pictured in January locals celebrate Epiphany by swimming in Lake Norilsk 

In the winter, children are allowed for a walk outside only under certain conditions. Sometimes children have to spend several months indoors

In the winter, children are allowed for a walk outside only under certain conditions. Sometimes children have to spend several months indoors

Lost in the middle of tundra in 400 km on the North of the Arctic Circle, Norilsk has no ground transport connections with the rest of the world. In the time of Stalin, the perilous road to Norilsk Gulag was known as the 'road of death'

Only waterways and airways allow the life to be attached to the rest of Russia and inhabitants call the rest of the world a continent

People domesticate industrial zones for their leisure and recreation. A man soaks up some rare rays of sunshine (above)

During snowstorms the public transport is organised in processions. The column of 15-20 buses transport workers between the city and places of work. If one bus breaks down, the passengers can be evacuated to another bus. This convoy circulates only three times a day

The fall of the USSR disrupted the flow of funds to the city and construction of several buildings were frozen. For 20 years, these buildings have remained unfinished

A coat of snow covers the city during eight to nine months a year and snowdrifts can reach three metres in height

The real rise of Norilsk started at the beginning of the 20th century, when the expedition of the geologist Urvantsev found out the rich deposits of nickel, copper and cobalt at the foot of the Putorana Mountains

One of the Norilsk particularities is the lack of green spaces in the city where one can escape. Inhabitants must go 20 miles by bus and have to walk for a while to reach the true nature. Lack of time causes people to enjoy the sun and heat in the urban area

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Norilsk became the main centre of the company Norilsk Nickel, the world leader in production of nickel and palladium, with 17% and 41% of the world production respectively. Nowadays, Norilsk Nickel brings in 2% of the Russian GDP

The pollution caused by the mining and factories brings Norilsk in the top-10 list of the world most polluted cities

This huge pollution has a strong influence on the people’s health. Life expectancy is 10 years less than in other regions of Russia, the risk of cancer is two time higher and respiratory diseases are widespread 

Norilsk is situated on the Siberian western plateau at the foot of the Putorana Mountains culminating at 1700 metres above the sea level. Norilsk has the largest deposits of nickel, copper and palladium in the world

Norilsk is situated on the Siberian western plateau at the foot of the Putorana Mountains culminating at 1700 metres above the sea level. Norilsk has the largest deposits of nickel, copper and palladium in the world

The city-factory has only one reason to exist: maintaining the biggest metallurgical and mines complex in the world. This complex brings in 2% of GDP of Russia

The construction plan of Norilsk was established in 1940 by architects who were prisoners of Norillag. Its main idea was to create an ideal city with simple and logical plan. The most ancient buildings are constructed in the style of Stalin architecture

The second phase of construction in the city was in 1960s, and followed the widespread system in USSR of constructing the buildings with pre-built panels

Life expectancy is ten years lesser than the average in Russia, while life expectancy in Russia is already low enough, about 60 years

Norilsk is facing, despite its prosperity, big problem of maintenance of its buildings. The problem is the thawing of upper layers of permafrost 



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